Soviet and Russian Nuclear Submarines
By Qamar

Russia will hand over Akula-II class nuclear-powered submarine, K-152 Nerpa to the Indian Navy by the end of this year. India has already renamed it INS Chakra

Chief of the Russian Navy, Admiral Vladimir Vysotsky has confirmed that around 50 Indian submariners have received extensive training on the K-152 Nerpa nuclear-powered submarine and they are ready to take over the submarine.

India has provided $650 million  funding for the completion of the K-152 Nerpa's construction at Komsomolsk-on-Amur shipyard in Russia. Delivery of the K-152 Nerpa submarine to the Indian Navy was delayed due to the technical problems and toxic gas leak in November 2008.
 The Akula Incident (Incident Series)
India also leased Charlie-II nuclear-powered submarine from the Russia from 1988 to 1991 and renamed it INS Chakra. Russia has also provided India with submarine designs to construct India's Arihant class of nuclear-powered submarines. Russians also helped India in the design and construction of the compact nuclear reactor to power the submarine.

India plans to introduce 3 Arihant class  nuclear-powered submarines which will carry 12 nuclear capable submarine launched ballistic missiles.

Prime Minister Manmohan Singh himself acknowled Russian help in the Arihant SSBN project and said, "I would also like to express our appreciation to our Russian friends for their consistent and invaluable cooperation".

Indian Naval Chief, Admiral Nirmal Verma has said that India's INS Arihant ballistic missile submarine (SSBN) will be ready for conducting "deterrent patrols'' in 2012 with its armed with SLBMs (submarine-launched ballistic missiles).
Kursk Down: The Shocking True Story of the Sinking of a Russian Nuclear Submarine 

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